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Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

Poorest and brightest girls more likely to be depressed – UK study

Brighter girls and girls from poorer families are more likely to be depressed by the time they enter adolescence, according to a study triggering fresh concern about soaring rates of teenage mental illness.

The government-funded research identified the two groups as being most at risk of displaying high symptoms of depression at the age of 14. In contrast, more intelligent boys and boys from the most deprived backgrounds appear not to suffer from the mental troubles that affect their female peers, the academics discovered.

The findings are based on detailed questionnaires filled in by 9,553 boys and girls aged 14 across the UK as part of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), which is tracking the progress of people born in 2000 into adulthood.

They add to growing evidence that teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to mental health difficulties. NHS figures show there were sharp increases between 2005/06 and 2015/16 in the number of girls under 18 admitted to hospital in England because they had self-harmed by cutting (up 285%), poisoning (42%) or hanging themselves (331%).

The researchers, led by Dr Praveetha Patalay, also found that being overweight, a history of being bullied and not getting on with peers were the three most common causes of depression in boys and girls aged 14. Their previous finding, that 24% of 14-year-old girls and 9% of boys that age were depressed, stirred widespread debate last year.

Dr Nihara Krause, a consultant clinical psychologist, said the findings about brighter and poorer girls were worrying, given the known links between depression and self-harm, and self-harm and risk of suicide.

“Some children who are depressed will self-harm. Some people say that physical pain is easier to tolerate than emotional pain,” she said. “What’s very concerning, in those who are depressed, is the link with suicide, because more and more studies show that self-harm is a predictor of suicide. Someone who self-harms is more likely to try to take their own life, especially if they are depressed. So these new findings are a concern from that point of view.”

Patalay said girls from families in the bottom two quintiles of household income were 7.5% more likely to be depressed at 14 than girls from the highest income families, but the same pattern was not found in boys.

Cleverer girls also had a significantly higher risk of having high depressive symptoms at 14, she said, and she was doing further research to calculate that risk more precisely among those with “higher childhood cognitive scores”.

Krause said: “Part of it could be that [brighter girls] have a ‘hyper brain’, a more active brain, which often means they have a much higher emotional reaction to things and they are constantly overthinking things.

“For example, if there’s a friendship situation that might be a concern to them, children of higher intelligence might think about all sorts of reasons why this situation has developed and get stressed about it.”

She pinpointed pressure on children to succeed at school – from their parents, schools and themselves – and competition for university places and jobs as a key cause of anxiety and depression in teenagers. In addition, some bright pupils are pushed too much, and those children can develop academically but be less adept at forming friendships, she suggested.

Children of either sex who have been bullied are 5.5% more likely to be depressed at 14, and boys or girls who do not get on well with their peers are 1.5% more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms.

The researchers also found that overweight boys and girls were 5% more likely to be depressed. This has prompted speculation as to whether the huge recent increase in childhood obesity is helping to drive what experts say is a growing mental health crisis in young people.

“We found a substantial link between being overweight and being depressed. Rates of overweight and mental ill-health are increasing in childhood, and they both have enormous consequences through our lives. Tackling these two health issues should be a public health priority,” Patalay said.

Emla Fitzsimons, a co-author of the findings and director of the MCS, said: “The study highlights a sharp increase in mental health problems among girls between ages 11 and 14. We certainly need to be looking at how the use of social media and cyberbullying may affect girls and boys differently.”

Dr Nick Waggett, chief executive of the Association of Child Psychotherapists, said it was unhelpful to highlight bright or poor girls as being at particular risk “when we already now there is a significant burden of mental illness in children and young people, including adolescent girls, and that there is a substantial shortfall in specialist services for them.”

Claire Murdoch, NHS England’s national mental health director, said: “After decades in the shadows, children’s mental health is finally in the spotlight, with more young people seeking help and years of unmet need being addressed. The NHS has responded, with 70,000 more young people set to get help, £1.4bn of extra funding and eating disorder and perinatal mental health services covering the whole country.

“But if the NHS is to meet fully the scale of the challenge then government, schools and councils need to work with us and our patients over the long-term.”

A few more Oxbridge places for disadvantaged children is just tinkering | Frances Ryan

A thinktank’s suggestion for how to get more students from disadvantaged backgrounds into Oxford and Cambridge – open a new generation of colleges – is the sort of solution that unwittingly tells you much about the problem.

Inequality in Britain’s education system is so entrenched that, according to the Higher Education Policy Institute, the best way for elite institutions to include disadvantaged young people is not to change but to create separate buildings.

It’s little wonder that steps to redress the balance for marginalised pupils are less than useful. We’ve long been told that working-class, disabled and ethnic minority students can excel if they put in enough effort. The fetishisation of grammar schools – just given £50m-worth of new life by the government – is testament to that. Critics of more redistributive measures have long pointed to “minority success stories” to try to prove their point, as if with enough grit, talent and determination, no child need let poverty, race, or disability hold them back.

This individualism has always been simplistic, ignoring the multiple structural barriers that affect all our life chances, but in today’s climate, it looks outright delusional. Take what’s happening to disabled pupils. Cuts to education are happening across the board, but are deepening for children with special educational needs. According to the Association of Directors of Children’s Services, there is a £400m gap between what councils in England say they need for this kind of educational provision and what the government is providing. More than 4,000 children with special needs don’t even have a school place (up from 776 in 2010), dumped at home without a right to education.

Even if they are in school, it’s unlikely they’ll be getting the support they need. For example, figures obtained by the National Deaf Children’s Society through freedom of information requests this week reveal that over one-third of councils in England are planning to cut support for deaf children this year. That’s around £4m in itself. The charity says that support for deaf children in schools is now reaching “breaking point” – since 2014, one in 10 specialist teachers for the deaf has been cut, with test results promptly getting worse.

Back in the 1990s, I started secondary school barely a year after Labour gained power. Like most state mainstream schools then, mine was largely inaccessible for pupils like me who used a wheelchair. My class ended up being taught out of only three rooms for the entirety of year 7 while a lift was being installed, with more renovations coming over the years. By the time I was in sixth form, I could get to most parts of the school like anyone else – something often taken for granted but vital for not only a child’s learning, but social development. I dread to think what would have happened with today’s funding cuts.

Disabled students are already at an academic disadvantage. In the first study of its kind in the UK, recent research from the University of Warwick and the London School of Economics found that disabled children are more likely to enter secondary education with lower educational attainment than non-disabled pupils, and are less likely to achieve good grades at GCSE. But as worrying, the minority who do manage to get qualifications are still let down: more than a quarter of disabled young people do achieve five or more A*-C grades, but they are less likely to stay on to take A-levels, and less likely to go on to university, than young people without disabilities.

And this isn’t just about funding. Social factors including low expectations of people with disabilities, and experiences of bullying, were found by the researchers to be key barriers. Prejudice isn’t confined to disability, of course. Last year, the Oxford college St Hilda’s was set to introduce a “class liberation officer” because of abuse towards working-class students, the sort of toxic environment that damages learning and tells a certain group “this is not for you”. Beyond Oxbridge, research from the National Union of Students last month found that low-income students were routinely experiencing harassment or discrimination because of their class, as well as paying a “poverty premium”, often shelling out higher costs than their wealthier peers.

None of this is simple to solve, nor does the problem come down to one or even a handful of factors. Similarly, no matter what the headlines suggest, getting more disadvantaged pupils into Oxbridge is not the holy grail of equality. From early years education all the way to university, a variety of large-scale social and economic measures are needed – as well as smaller practical ones – to begin giving disadvantaged young people a fair shot across the board.

There are many existing schemes that do great work in helping BAME or low-income pupils with A-levels or the university application process. Last year, I was a volunteer mentor to a first-year student at IntoUniversity – a programme created in response to the high university drop-out rate of low-income students; I also took part in one of their careers workshops designed to give primary-school pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds inspiration for what they could grow up to be. But any social intervention must come along with cold hard cash from the state, whether it’s for keeping children’s centres open, reinstating teaching assistants to classrooms, or lowering tuition fees for young people daunted by debt.

Tinkering with Oxbridge admissions may make a good story, but let’s be under no illusion. Be it removing a teacher for a deaf child or the longstanding prejudice towards non-white, non-wealthy students, the assault on disadvantaged children is built into the fabric of this country – and is only getting worse. The very children who most need a leg-up are actually being knocked from all sides.

Frances Ryan writes the Guardian’s Hardworking Britain series